A three-stage manpower planning and scheduling model--a service-sector example
Abernathy, W. J. B., Nicholas; Hershey, John C.; Wandel, Sten. (1973). A Three-Stage Manpower Planning and Scheduling Model--A Service-Sector Example. [Journal Article]. Operations Research, 21(3), 693-711.
This paper presents a staff planning and scheduling model that has specific application in the nurse-staffing process in acute hospitals, and more general application in many other service organizations in which demand and production characteristics are similar. The aggregate planning models that have been developed for goods-producing organizations are not appropriate for these types of service organizations. In this paper the process for staffing services is divided into three decision levels: (a) policy decisions, including the operating procedures for service centers and for the staff-control process itself; (b) staff planning, including hiring, discharge, training, and reallocation decisions; and (c) short-term scheduling of available staff within the constraints determined by the two previous levels. These three planning "levels" are used as decomposition stages in developing a general staffing model. The paper formulates the planning and scheduling stages as a stochastic programming problem, suggests an iterative solution procedure using random loss functions, and develops a noniterative solution procedure for a chance-constrained formulation that considers alternative operating procedures and service criteria, and permits including statistically dependent demands. The discussion includes an example application of the model and illustrations of its potential uses in the nurse-staffing process.